14. Paragraphs 12 and 13 also hold for addresses and signatures.
Addresses and signatures.
15. In General Procedure, addresses and signatures are taken from
the Radio Name List, prefixed with a 'beta' and inserted after the time
group or after the last radio group. They thus fall outside of
the ciphered part of the message.
16. In the Fleet and Acknowledgment Procedures, addresses are to
be put at the beginning of the message text and to be enciphered
along with it. In these Procedures, the usual thing is to give
the address first and to separate it by "VON" from the address
following it. Extensive use is to be made of abbreviations (see
paragraphs 12, 13, and 19).
17. On frequencies on which messages with the same addresses and
signatures frequently recur, the opening can be varied by alternating
between putting the signature first and putting the address first.
The address is to be separated from the signature by "AN" or "VON",
depending on the order.
18. The word "VON" or "AN" is to be given twice in succession.
The letters "VVV" and "AAA", respectively, may be used in place of
For example: a) BDUUU AN AN UUUZEHN.
b) UUUZEHN VVV BDUUU.
19. In frequent use of service stations' names, the form of abbre-
viation is to be varied as much as possible without giving rise
to misunderstanding. This is in order to vary the length of the
messages and their external appearance.
a) Befehlshaber der Unterseeboote:
BEFHBR. UUUBTE, and so on.
b) Befehlshaber der Kreuzer:
BEF. D. KRZR.
BEFEHLSHBR. DER KREUZ. , and so on.
c) F.d.M. Ost:
FUEHR. MMM OST.
MINENSUCHFUEHR. OST, and so on.